每天学写留学文书 9月21日

development environment vs. QA/testing environment vs. production environment

辨析:以上三个都是软件工程的术语。development environment指的是软件开发人员所使用的软硬件环境,一般有高性能电脑、开发工具及一些特殊设置等等。QA/testing environment指的是软件测试人员所使用的软硬件环境,硬件配置一般向普通用户看齐,软件有什么都没装的(便于隔离出被测软件的具体问题),也有模拟用户软件环境的。production environment指的是软件真实的使用环境,对于应用软件,这个依据用户的习惯和财力会千差万别一些。

每天学写留学文书 9月20日

in this respect

释义:“就这方面来说”,留学文书里一种极好的承接并解释上文的方法。请注意这里的respect使用的是这个词最初的意思,“对某事或者某状况的一种指代”。大家一般对它“尊敬”的含义可能要更熟悉一些。

例句:
In this respect, the halifite initially seems to confirm the idea that emotion is a direct response to a state of being.
Secondly, I think John Boehner is right in this respect.

每天学写留学文书 9月19日

prospective vs. perspective

辨析:这两者都是留学文书里出现频率极高的词,但是绝对不要张冠李戴。前者是形容词,描述一种即将发生的状态,譬如,作者对于所申请的大学来说可以是prospective student,也可以是prospective engineer/professional/experimentalist等等。后者的话是既是美术中的“透视”,也可以作为“观点、视角”,一般使用在称赞diversity的情形里,例如different/multiple perspectives,所谓“兼听则明,偏信则暗”。

例句:
Brady often charged no fee to stars of a certain stature to impress other prospective patrons.
Provide teachers with educational perspectives on students as learners of technology.

每天学写留学文书 9月18日

prefect vs. perfect

辨析:前者是指英美高中里类似国内“班长”、“风纪委员”或“模范学生”一类的学生职务暨荣誉,在哈利·波特系列里有出现。切勿在留学文书中和后者混淆了,Word的拼写检查是完全查不出来的。

例句:
He's a prefect, plays football and is the captain of the soccer team.
I'll be able to use Facebook as the perfect example of what I tell the students in my IPO and venture capital class that even apparently hot IPOs can be risky to price.

每天学写留学文书 9月17日

did not then know

释义:“那时候还不知道”,每个词都很简单,但是搭配在一起表达了一种遗憾和欣慰交织的复杂情感。词序不要弄错了。

例句:
It also marks the beginning of a debilitating illness, which I did not then know existed.
If we did not then know empirically, we knew intuitively that these students came from child-centered homes.

每天学写留学文书 9月16日

pose

释义:很多时候,可以用这个词代替ask来“问”问题。但是,在留学文书里这个词还可能有“造成”(一般接负面后果)和“扮作”这另外两个截然不同的动词义。它主要的名词形式就是我们通常说的“摆pose”里的pose了。

例句:
Most confounding, on our second week my trip-mates posed a question I'd never considered: Inside or out?
The printers can short-circuit and overheat during use, posing a fire hazard.
The FBI also infiltrated a club with an undercover agent posing as a bouncer.

每天学写留学文书 9月15日

myth

释义:这个词最原始的意义是“神话传说”或者“寓言故事”(两者的界定并不是那么明确)。但是在留学文书里,我们通常用的是比较新的含义,即“被许多人认为是正确的但实则错误的观念”,或者直接就是“谣言”或“迷思”。一本软件工程著作《人月神话》的英文名称即为The Mythical Man-Month,另有一部美国电视科普节目《流言终结者》(MythBusters)。

例句:
Husband accused of murdering his wife, tries to blame her death on a fatal reaction to a simple spray tan, and thus a myth was born.
Yes, America has a trade deficit. But contrary to popular myth, this fact does not mean that America is economically "uncompetitive."

每天学写留学文书 9月14日

strictly speaking

释义:这似乎是现在中国学生在英语作文中滥用的诸多短语之一。事实上,“严格的说”一定要有一个上下文。即使紧邻短语的句子没有体现出一个更“宽松”的情形,作者也应该尽力使读者明白短语的使用是有一个特定背景的。

例句:
IN THE JUNE 1967 ISSUE, TOWN & COUNTRY CHOSE a 20-year-old Willard Mitt Romney and 24 others for an item on "America's most eligible young men." Readers could not have known that Romney had already gotten engaged to his prom date, Ann Davies. Alas, Mitt was never, strictly speaking, eligible.
While not strictly speaking a masterpiece show, its like won't be attempted again on this scale and in this depth for some time.

每天学写留学文书 9月13日

in/with regard to

释义:“对于”,在留学文书里通常被用于在段落内转移到一个新的话题或问题具体的一方面上,既可以是某件事也可以是某个人。可以用于开始句子,亦可在句中出现。with相对in而言要更为正式一些。

例句:
He vaguely knows what he's doing with regard to our economy.
We can do some really intelligent things in regard to recreation in Colorado.

同义词:as regards(正式), regarding

每天学写留学文书 9月12日

advice vs. advise

辨析:均为“建议”的意思,但前者为名词后者为动词。值得注意的是,对留学文书里所用到的义项而言,advice是不可数名词。

advise还有另外两个名词形式adviser和advisor,一般可以混用,但是如果作为职务名的一部分,优先使用后者。

例句:
She only ever gave me two pieces of advice.
I would not have advised her family to do that interview.
Tom Rath, a Romney adviser, summarized the candidate's reactions to losses.
I say this as your legal advisor and an officer of the court.