每天学写留学文书 1月7日

discrete vs. discreet

辨析:这两个词同音且来自于同一个拉丁词根,但在语言演化的过程中意义有了不同。前者意为「不寻常的、离散的、无关联的」,所对应的名词形式为discreteness。后者意为在言行中体现城府和谨慎,所对应的名词形式为discretion。

例句:
It’s about a very discrete, small number of people or small segment of cases.
For more immediate and discreet assistance, the Pentagon offers marriage counseling through other avenues.

每天学写留学文书 1月6日

boot camp

释义:「集训营」,原来是专指新兵训练的场所,现在泛指诸如健身、技能和语言等的短期培训项目,一般需要受训者住在营地并接受高强度训练。

例句:
For 25 days, they followed our Ballet Boot Camp Challenge, as well as eating guidelines and recipes recommended by Andrea Nakayama.
A majority of the young men we work with in the boot camp are really incredible.

每天学写留学文书 1月5日

harmonious vs. harmonic

辨析:两者都是「和谐」的形容词形式。区别在于前者主要用于日常生活的范畴,后者主要用于表现音乐和科学的概念。

例句:
This was not a recipe for harmonious relations let alone the successful management of the Commons by the Crown.
As students are led to identify rhythmic, harmonic, melodic, and formal patterns, they can develop a sense of the musical syntax of the genre they are studying and transfer their understandings to new pieces.

每天学写留学文书 1月4日

stock photo/image

释义:「资料图片」,并非由雇佣的摄影师所专门拍摄,而是从特定渠道或在线图库购买的用于创意设计的照片。在留学文书写作里可考虑用它的引申义「刻板映象」,即stereotype的本义。

例句:
I did find a few usable ones, such as a stock photo of a basket of chili peppers in the category of “red” photos (which inexplicably did not show up under Food).
In winning the governorship in Kansas, Kathleen Sebelius countered the stock image of westerners as cowboys roughing out a solo existence by talking about another strand of western tradition—that of quilting, barn-raising and people working together toward a common good.

每天学写留学文书 1月3日

audience vs. audience member

辨析:我们都知道audience是一个集合名词,它的复数形式audiences一般是指「不同类型的观众」。在留学文书里,如果想要具体到某一位观众,则需要写an audience member,几位观众则是audience members。

例句:
His target audience is the business wing of the Republican Party.
It has also brought his work to new audiences via pop-culture blogs.
“Speak louder!” an audience member shouted.
Or are we audience members, listening to natures great symphony and responding differentlyaccording to our peculiar sensibilities-to the tunes, chords, and rhythms that the mountains are drumming?

每天学写留学文书 1月2日

tape on

释义:这个词组可以形象的描绘便签(post-it note)、标志(sign)等贴在某个表面上的状态。

例句:
A handwritten sign is taped on his wooden door in the private clinic in Baghdad.
A crude sign taped on the stone wall directly in front of the body said PLEASE NO SMOKING.

每天学写留学文书 1月1日

consist vs. constitute

辨析:前者是不及物动词「包括」,一般后接of,体现一个整体的不同组成成分。后者是及物动词,在留学文书里主要用到的意义有「等同于」和「占到」。

例句:
The resulting top 100 list consists of 20 large companies (500 or more employees), 30 midsize companies (150-499 employees) and 50 small companies (149 or fewer employees).
The affluent and the middle class constitute two separate cultures that are deeply alienated from one another.
All the expenses you are questioning constitute less than .02 of 1% of the funds the Housing Authority has spent or managed.

每天学写留学文书 12月31日

introductory course vs. specialized course

辨析:前者是大一(freshman)和大二(sophomore)学生上的「基础课」,可以是不少专业都包含在内的内容(如微积分)。后者是大三(junior)和大四(senior)学生上的「专业课」,一般为本专业特有的高级课程(如物理系的四大力学)。

例句:
If you’re after an introductory course in developing personal style, this is the perfect text.
State universities would provide support services to a network of colleges not located on the central university campus, including administrative and financial services, library services, and central computing facilities, as well as specialized courses for advanced undergraduates.

每天学写留学文书 12月30日

literary vs. literally

辨析:两个单词都是源自「文字」这个词根,含义却大相径庭。literary是一个形容词,用来表示「文艺相关的」,常见的组合有literary works、literary figure、literary value以及literary criticism等。而literally则是一个副词,「字面上的」,这个词在留学文书的写作中可能要更常见一些,用来体现一种与比喻、引申等言外之意相对的实在性和明确性。在非正式的场景中,这个词还可以被用作对所陈述对象的强调和夸张。

例句:
Oedipus Rex, apart from the undeniable literary and historic value, also presents significant medical interest because the play mentions a plague, an epidemic, which was devastating Thebes, the town of Oedipus’ hegemony.
After American ships forced foreign influences into the country, Japanese art became Westernized, although such subsequent printmakers as Ikuo Hirayama are still classified as exponents of “Nihonga” (literally, “Japan pictures”).

每天学写留学文书 12月29日

well-off

释义:「生活富足的」,一般用来形容巨富以下、温饱以上的家庭经济状况及相应的社会地位。与rich和wealthy相比显得这个词要更温和一些,没有那么俗气。

例句:
The Tahoma family was well-off by comparison to most.
When it comes to terrorism and extremism, intelligence agencies in the U.S. and Europe have been grappling with a bewildering phenomenon—that a surprisingly large number of Islamic radicals are relatively well-off and well-educated Westerners.