约翰霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)留学文书写作指南(2017版)

文书题目

本校采用Common Application作为官方认可的网申系统,可能还至少需要完成一篇标准的Common Essay

写文书 Successful students at Johns Hopkins make the biggest impact by collaborating with others, including peers, mentors, and professors. Talk about a time, in or outside the classroom, when you worked with others and what you learned from the experience.

翻译:约翰霍普金斯的成功学生在与他人(包括同伴、导师和教授)合作时创造了最大影响。讲一讲你在课堂内外与他人合作的一刻,以及你从中学到了什么。

解析:AADPS分类II-a

字数限制:300-400词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年9月10日,发布于http://aadps.net/2017/12255.html

Coalition申请系统文书解析(2017版)

文书题目

  • 写文书 Tell a story from your life, describing an experience that either demonstrates your character or helped to shape it.
  • 写文书 Describe a time when you made a meaningful contribution to others in which the greater good was your focus. Discuss the challenges and rewards of making your contribution.
  • 写文书 Has there been a time when you've had a long-cherished or accepted belief challenged? How did you respond? How did the challenge affect your beliefs?
  • 写文书 What is the hardest part of being a teenager now? What's the best part? What advice would you give a younger sibling or friend (assuming they would listen to you)?
  • 写文书 Submit an essay on a topic of your choice.

翻译:

  • 讲一个你生活里发生的故事,即描述一个能显示你个性或帮助塑造了它的经历。
  • 描述你心怀大我为他人做出有意义贡献的一刻。讨论过程中的种种挑战和收获。
  • 是否曾在某个时候你长久以来的信仰受到了挑战?你是怎么应对的?这一挑战反过来是怎么影响你的信仰的?
  • 当一名青少年最难的部分在哪?最好的部分呢?这方面你会给你的弟弟妹妹或朋友们什么建议(假定他们会听你的)?
  • 自拟题目。

解析:

字数限制:五选一,550词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年9月10日,发布于http://aadps.net/2017/11689.html

Common申请系统文书解析(2017版)

文书题目

  • 写文书 Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.
  • 写文书 The lessons we take from obstacles can be fundamental to later success. Recount an incident or time when you experienced a challenge, setback or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience?
  • 写文书 Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?
  • 写文书 Describe a problem you've solved or a problem you'd like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma---anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution.
  • 写文书 Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others.
  • 写文书 Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more?
  • 写文书 Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design.

翻译:

  • 有些学生有如此有意义的背景、身份、兴趣或才能,以至于对他们来说缺了它整个申请就不完整。如果你正是这种情况,请分享你的故事。
  • 我们在克服障碍中学到的教训可能对未来的成功是至关重要的。回忆你曾经历过的一次挑战、挫折或失败。它对你造成了什么影响,你从这段经历中学到了什么?
  • 回忆你曾质疑或挑战过的一种信念或想法。是什么促使你这么想的?结果是怎样的?
  • 描述一个你已经解决或者希望解决的问题。这可以是智力上的挑战、研究项目、道德困境——对个人有重要性的任何事都成,无关规模。解释这一问题对你的重要性,以及你是如何或会如何一步步找到解决方案的。
  • 阐述一个成就、事件或认识。它启迪了你的一段人生成长的历程以及对自己或他人的新领悟。
  • 描述一个正让你废寝忘食的主题、想法或概念。它为什么俘虏了你?当你想就它进行深入学习的时候,你是通过何种途径或者为自己找到了怎样的导师?
  • 分享一篇自选主题的文书。可以是你已经写过的,回应你读到过的其他文书题目的或按你自创的题目写的。

解析:

从最初的第五题沿革而来,先是删去了diversity,这一次又把identity作为并列的一项(原先的文字是a background or story that is so central to their identity),在字面上弱化了对所谓“弱势族群”(URM, under-represented minority)的偏向,但仍然可以把这道题看成是给美国本土非裔墨裔学生预留的。对于一般中国学生而言,如果有特殊的家庭背景或在自己预申请的大学专业上有特别才能(这方面需要在活动和奖项上能够印证),推荐写这个。但是连题目里都是说some students,所以并不是每个人都适合。学生必须很好地认识到自己究竟是怎样的一个人。只有这样才会清楚地知道,成长背景对塑造了今天的自己有多深刻的影响,而兴趣爱好又从什么程度上折射出了自己的人格。

成功的留学文书永远是正面的,所以说到“困难”,就应该转到“教训”甚至是“克服”上面。今年题目将“失败”改为了“障碍”,让大家可以用的事例范围扩充了不少,也和我们一直倡导的思路相吻合。但是还是需要注意两点:一个是不要写相对来说太肤浅的障碍或者失败,比如考试发挥失常,或者跟小伙伴吵架闹翻之类的事情上。如果要在个人陈述中写这样的事情,难免会给招生官留下思考问题不够深入,人生经历不够丰富的印象。另一个是避免因为对自己要求过高,从而觉得人生非常失败这种会使得文书基调显得灰暗消极的题材。

题目今年删去了“你还会做同样的决定”这种比较八卦的问法。然后把“质疑”和“挑战”并列,把“行动”改成了“思考”,也是大大拓宽了选材范围。这道题考察批判性思维(critical thinking)和个性,对中国学生一般来说不具有太大优势,因此在没有特别好的思路时,不用生搬硬套。但是如果有想法的话,把握好度的写出来或许也能让自己脱颖而出。具体按照陈欣老师的经验来看,对于与权威(比如家长、老师、校方)的直接争执和冲突尽量略写或从侧面体现,重点是放在之前的不良后果、自己的心路历程以及努力所造成的正面改变上。

这道题目就事论事,因而一般而言更好下笔一些。写的时候既可以从专业知识运用的角度出发凸显自己的问题解决能力,也可以就一个艰难选择来谈谈自己的三观。至关重要的一点是要确保言之有物,用一个真实可信的案例来做到“表现,而非说服”(show, don't tell)。

最初Common申请系统是有一道1000字符的让描写自己一个课外活动或工作经历的题目的。当时不少学生没有很好的把握这一点,会让长短两篇文书重叠起来,白白浪费机会。从适用范围来说,本题延续了这种思路,基本是人人可写。从marked your transition from childhood to adulthood到sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others的文字改动,同样拓宽了选材范围,之前是纯写自己,这一回把他人也带入进来了,对事情的标志性要求也有所弱化。陈欣老师认为,事情不论大小,只要写出这件事对自己成长或者对人生认识的特殊意义,就是成功的。过去几年以来遇到过将成长定义为能够关怀他人的学生,也遇到过将成长定义为能够独立掌控自己人生的学生。这些定义都很好,只要能够符合自己的人生轨迹,就可以折射出独特的人格魅力并给招生官留下不错的印象。

虽然说这道题目粗看和第四题有点类似,但事实上这是Common第一次在主文书里面引入了带专业倾向的题目,这对于本身有很强专业兴趣的孩子是一个福音。但从策略上来说,如果写了这道题目的话,就需要注意与学校补充文书的差异化。另外一方面,如果因为特殊的申请策略而要针对不同学校选择不相干专业的时候,本题可能就要建议回避了。注意题目用的都是现在时。

自拟题目五年之后再度回归。没有限制的文书其实是最不好写的文书,不是么?

字数限制:七选一,250-650词

Please provide an answer below if you wish to provide details of circumstances or qualifications not reflected in the application.

翻译:如果你希望的话,请用以下的空解释申请材料中未反映的细节、情况或资历。

解析:AADPS分类III-a

字数限制:可选,650词

题目归档

2013-2015 [+]

2012以前 [+]

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年7月19日,发布于http://aadps.net/2016/166.html

加州大学(University of California)申请系统文书解析(2017版)

文书题目

  • 写文书 Describe an example of your leadership experience in which you have positively influenced others, helped resolve disputes, or contributed to group efforts over time.
  • 写文书 Every person has a creative side, and it can be expressed in many ways: problem solving, original and innovative thinking, and artistically, to name a few. Describe how you express your creative side.
  • 写文书 What would you say is your greatest talent or skill? How have you developed and demonstrated that talent over time?
  • 写文书 Describe how you have taken advantage of a significant educational opportunity or worked to overcome an educational barrier you have faced.
  • 写文书 Describe the most significant challenge you have faced and the steps you have taken to overcome this challenge. How has this challenge affected your academic achievement?
  • 写文书 Think about an academic subject that inspires you. Describe how you have furthered this interest inside and/or outside of the classroom.
  • 写文书 What have you done to make your school or your community a better place?
  • 写文书 Beyond what has already been shared in your application, what do you believe makes you stand out as a strong candidate for admissions to the University of California?

翻译:

  1. 试举一例来展现你的领导力。在例子中,你经过一段时间后给他人以正面影响,帮助解决了分歧或为集体活动做出了贡献。
  2. 每人都有创造性的一面,这可以通过许多形式表现:解决问题、原创创新的想法或者艺术创作等等。描述你是怎样表现出创造性的一面的?
  3. 你认为什么是你最重要的才能或技能?你是怎样在一段时间里开发并显露出这种才能的?
  4. 描述你是如何利用一个重要的教育机会或努力克服你所面对的教育壁垒的?
  5. 描述你曾面临的最大挑战,以及你克服它的步骤。这一挑战如何影响了你的学术成就?
  6. 考虑激发你灵感的一门学科。描述你是如何在课内外深入发掘这种兴趣的。
  7. 你为把学校和社区变得更好而付出了哪些行动?
  8. 除开你已经在申请里分享的内容,你认为是什么让你脱颖而出成为一位强有力的加州大学申请者?

解析:

  1. AADPS分类I-b
  2. AADPS分类I-b
  3. AADPS分类I-b
  4. AADPS分类I-b/AADPS分类III-a
  5. AADPS分类IV-b
  6. AADPS分类I-c
  7. AADPS分类II-a
  8. AADPS分类I-a

自从陈欣老师刚入行时起,加州大学的文书题目就一直没有变过。不过招生官们算是意识到了一直以来老题目存在的一些问题,因此下定决心做了一个重大的改变,使用了八选四的个人视角问题(personal insight question)取代了之前的两篇个人陈述(personal statement)。这对于基本必申加州大学的中国准留学生来说带来了一些挑战:不但总文书量从之前的1000词上涨到1400词,文书的问题选择和素材匹配的可能也大大增加,需要申请者精心的思考和选择。不过一个好消息是,对于每个问题,现在基本上只需要围绕一件事来说就好,花费在构思布局上的精力可以稍稍节省一些。

那么如何选出最适合你的四道题目呢?藉由我们靠谱的文书分类体系可以做一个简单的归类和分组。我们先来看前三题,这些算是把之前的个人陈述第二题完全打散拆开来,做一个三选二是不错的思路。视个人领导力和创造性方面的情况,第1题和第2题尽量写一道,如果能两道都写自然最好。第3题可以被当成一个补漏的角色,在素材确实套不到前面两题时,安在这里。在这边值得注意的一点是,第1题第7题第2/3题第6题的题目本身是有重叠的,因此在构思素材的时候请尽量岔开——如果第7题写社区,则第1题用学校,反之亦然;在不排除第6题时,第2/3题则尽量用一个课外的事例。

那么在剩下的五道题里面我们也应该选出两题。第4题是一个比较容易撞车的题目,但是如果有参加夏校、机器人队和奥赛集训营的话可以考虑,对某一门高阶课程在学习过程中有特别心得的也可以考虑(对于国际学校学生,可以写选修课程的体验;对于普通高中学生,在参加AP/SAT Subject并拿到高分的前提下则可以写克服困难自学的体验)。第6题一般是要排除的,仅在不和现有素材冲突,然后其他推荐的题目确实写不出来的情况下可以凑个数。5、7、8这三题算是有机会出彩的题目,需要好好思考。综合考虑的话建议保证第8题。第5题其次,但是如果过去确实没有太大挫折,则在不与其他问题冲突的情况下写第7题。

字数限制:八选四,350词

If you wish, you may use this space to tell us anything else you want us to know about you that you have not had the opportunity to describe elsewhere in the application.

翻译:如果你希望的话,你可以利用这个空来告诉我们你还希望我们了解的信息。这些是与你相关的,且你在申请的其他部分没有机会描述。

解析:AADPS分类III-a

字数限制:可选,550词

官方提示

  1. 及早开始:给自己充分的时间准备素材、打草稿及修订。
  2. 言之有物:不要枯燥的堆活动或奖项。着重用具体例子展开某个主题来支撑你的论点。
  3. 以“我”为先:多讲讲自己以让招生官了解你的个性、才华、成就和潜力,进而判断你是否能在某一UC校区中取得成功。在文书中使用I和my。
  4. 咬文嚼字:虽然文书并不会因为语法、拼写或句子结构而被扣分,你应该仔细校对以确保清晰的文思。语法和拼写错误会把读者带偏,让他们没法专注于你所期望沟通的内容。
  5. 不耻下问:你的文书应该体现你自己的想法并仅有你来完成,但其他人——亲戚、老师和朋友——能提供重要的建议。请充分参考别人的意见,不要抄袭或剽窃就好。
  6. 复制粘贴:请用纯文本(ASCII)保存你的留学文书完成稿并最终贴到网申系统里。粘贴后再检查一遍,确保没有奇怪的字符或换行。
  7. 稍安勿躁:留学文书只是招生官考察的诸多信息之一。你的文书是个加分项——录取结果不会仅仅由此而决定。放手写作吧!

题目归档

2015以前 [+]

学校列表

以下这些大学采用加州大学申请系统:

拓展阅读

申请美国大学的文书素材选择(2016版)

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年4月27日,发布于http://aadps.net/2016/1579.html

TOEFL综合写作练习

写文书 In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for eight hours each day. However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. A mandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option. The shortened workweek would increase company profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff to ensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result in additional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80 percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have fewer overworked and error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase company profits. For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rates. If many full-time employees started working fewer hours, some of their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every four employees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the 80 percent rate. Finally, the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their lives by spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests, or enjoying leisure activities. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 In many organizations, perhaps the best way to approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into a team. Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages.
First of all, a group of people has a wider range of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to possess. Also, because of the numbers of people involved and the greater resources they possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned to it and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues. Sometimes these creative solutions come about because a group is more likely to make risky decisions that an individual might not undertake. This is because the group spreads responsibility for a decision to all the members and thus no single individual can be held accountable if the decision turns out to be wrong.
Taking part in a group process can be very rewarding for members of the team. Team members who have a voice in making a decision will no doubt feel better about carrying out the work that is entailed by the decision than they might doing work that is imposed on them by others.
Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to "shine", to get his or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highly significant, because a team's overall results can be more farreaching and have greater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for the person to accomplish or contribute working alone. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 Rembrandt is the most famous of the seventeenth-century Dutch painters. However, there are doubts whether some paintings attributed to Rembrandt were actually painted by him. One such painting is known as attributed to Rembrandt because of its style, and indeed the representation of the woman's face is very much like that of portraits known to be by Rembrandt. But there are problems with the painting that suggest it could not be a work by Rembrandt.
First, there is something inconsistent about the way the woman in the portrait is dressed. She is wearing a white linen cap of a kind that only servants would wear-yet the coat she is wearing has a luxurious fur collar that no servant could afford. Rembrandt, who was known for his attention to the details of his subjects' clothing, would not have been guilty of such an inconsistency.
Second, Rembrandt was a master of painting light and shadow, but in this painting these elements do not fit together. The face appears to be illuminated by light reflected onto it from below. But below the face is the dark fur collar, which would absorb light rather than reflect it. So the face should appear partially in shadow-which is not how it appears. Rembrandt would never have made such an error.
Finally, examination of the back of the painting reveals that it was painted on a panel made of several pieces of wood glued together. Although Rembrandt often painted on wood panels, no painting known to be by Rembrandt uses a panel glued together in this way from several pieces of wood.
听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37℃,no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modern reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.
Polar dinosaurs
One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Polar Regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.
Leg position and movement
There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal's legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body's side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.
Haversian canals
There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals. 听力

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写文书 As early as the twelfth century A.D., the settlements of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico in the American Southwest were notable for their "great houses," massive stone buildings that contain hundreds of rooms and often stand three or four stories high. Archaeologists have been trying to determine how the buildings were used. While there is still no universally agreed upon explanation, there are three competing theories.
One theory holds that the Chaco structures were purely residential, with each housing hundreds of people. Supporters of this theory have interpreted Caco great houses as earlier versions of the architecture seen in more recent Southwest societies. In particular, the Chaco houses appear strikingly similar to the large, well-known "apartment buildings" at Taos, new Mexico, in which many people have been living for centuries.
A second theory contends that the Chaco structures were used to store food supplies. One of the main crops of the Chaco people was grain maize, which could be stored for long periods of time without spoiling and could serve as a long-lasting supply of food. The supplies of maize had to be stored somewhere, and the size of the great houses would make them very suitable for the purpose.
A third theory proposes that houses were used as ceremonial centers. Close to one house, called Pueblo Alto, archaeologists identified an enormous mound formed by a pile of old material. Excavations of the mound revealed deposits containing a surprisingly large number of broken pots. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that people gathered at Pueblo Alto for special ceremonies. At the ceremonies, they ate festive meals and then discarded the pots in which the meals had been prepared or served. Such ceremonies have been documented for other Native American cultures. 听力

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写文书 Communal online encyclopedias represent one of the latest resources to be found on the internet. They are in many respects like traditional printed encyclopedias collections of articles on various subjects. What is specific to these online encyclopedias, however, is that any internet user can contribute a new article or make an editorial change in an existing one. As a result, the encyclopedia is authored by the whole community of internet users. The idea might sound attractive, but the communal online encyclopedias have several important problems that make them much less valuable than traditional, printed encyclopedias.
First, contributors to communal online encyclopedia often lack academic credentials, thereby making their contributions partially informed at best and downright inaccurate in many cases. Traditional encyclopedias are written by trained experts who adhere to standards of academic rigor that non-specialists cannot really achieve.
Second, even if the original entry in the online encyclopedia is correct, the communal nature of these online encyclopedias gives unscrupulous users and vandals or hackers the opportunity to fabricate, delete, and corrupt information in the encyclopedia. Once changes have ben made to the original text, an unsuspecting user cannot tell the entry has been tampered with. None of this is possible with a traditional encyclopedia.
Third, the communal encyclopedias focus too frequently, and in too great a depth, on trivial and popular topics, which creates a false impression of what is important and what is not. A child doing research for a school project may discover that a major historical event receives as much attention in an online encyclopedia as, say, a single long-running television program. The traditional encyclopedia provides a considered view of what topics to include or exclude and contains a sense of proportion that onlie "democratic" communal encyclopedias do not. 听力

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写文书 In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as ecocertified. Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive ecocertification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.
First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the ecocertification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled "new" or improved, "American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.
Second, ecocertified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn ecocertification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers-American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price,and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain ecocertification.
Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense of American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case, American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with merchandise. 听力

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写文书 Toward the end of his life, the Chevalier de Seingalt (1725-1798) wrote a long memoir recounting his life and adventures the Chevalier was a somewhat controversial figure, but since he met many famous people, including kings and writers, his memoir has become a valuable historical source about European society in the eighteenth century. However, some critics have raised doubts about the accuracy of the memoir. They claim that the Chevalier distorted or invented many events in the memoir to make his life seem more exciting and glamorous that it really was.
For example, in his memoir the Chevalier claims that while living in Switzerland, he was very wealthy, and it is known that he spent a great deal of money there on parties and gambling. However, evidence has recently surfaced that the Chevalier borrowed considerable sums of money from a Swiss merchant. Critics thus argue that if the Chevalier had really been very rich, he would not have needed to borrow money.
Critics are also skeptical about the accuracy of the conversations that the Chevalier records in the memoir between himself and the famous writer Voltaire. No one doubts that the Chevalier and Voltaire met and conversed. However, critics complain that the memoir cannot possibly capture these conversations accurately, because it was written many years after the conversations occurred. Critics point out that it is impossible to remember exact phrases from extended conversations held many years earlier.
Critics have also questioned the memoir's account of the Chevalier's escape from a notorious prison in Venice, Italy. He claims to have escaped the Venetian prison by using a piece of metal to make a hole in the ceiling and climbing through the roof. Critics claim that while such a daring escape makes for enjoyable reading, it is more likely that the Chevaliers jailers were bribed to free him. They point out that the Chevalier had a number of politically well-connected friends in Venice who could have offered a bribe. 听力

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写文书 Car manufacturers and governments have been eagerly seeking a replacement for the automobile's main source of power, the internal-combustion engine. By far the most promising alternative source of energy for cars is the hydrogen-based fuel-cell engine, which uses hydrogen to create electricity that, in turn, powers the car. Fuelcell engines have several advantages over internal-combustion engines and will probably soon replace them.
One of the main problems with the internal-combustion engine is that it relies on petroleum, either in the form of gasoline or diesel fuel. Petroleum is a finite resource; someday, we will run out of oil. They hydrogen needed for fuel-cell engines cannot easily be depleted. Hydrogen can be derived from various plentiful sources, including natural gas and even water. The fact that fuel-cell engines utilize easily available, renewable resources makes them particularly attractive.
Second, hydrogen-based fuel cells are attractive because they will solve many of the world's pollution problems. An unavoidable by-product of burning oil is carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide harms the environment. On the other hand, the only byproduct of fuel-cell engines is water.
Third, fuel-cell engines will soon be economically competitive because people will spend less money to operate a fuel-cell engine than they will to operate an internal-combustion engine. This is true for one simple reason: a fuel-cell automobile is nearly twice as efficient in using its fuel as an automobile powered by an internalcombustion engine is. In other words, the fuel-cell powered car requires only half the fuel energy that the internal-combustion powered car does to go the same distance. 听力

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写文书 The sea otter is a small mammal that lives in waters along the western coast of North America from California to Alaska. When some sea otter populations off the Alaskan coast started rapidly declining a few years ago, it caused much concern because see otters play an important ecological role in the coastal ecosystem. Experts started investigating the cause of the decline and quickly realized that there were two possible explanations: environmental pollution or attacks by predators. Initially, the pollution hypothesis seemed the more likely of the two.
The first reason why pollution seemed the more likely cause was that there were known sources of it along the Alaskan coast, such as oil rigs and other sources of industrial chemical pollution. Water samples from the area revealed increased levels of chemicals that could decrease the otters' resistance to life-threatening infections and thus could indirectly cause their deaths.
Second, other sea mammals such as seals and sea lions along the Alaskan coast were also declining, indicating that whatever had endangered the otters was affecting other sea mammals as well. This is fact again pointed to environmental pollution, since it usually affects the entire ecosystem rather than a single species. Only widely occurring predators, such as the orca (a large predatory whale), could have the same effect, but orcas prefer to hunt much larger prey, such as other whales.
Third, scientists believed that the pollution hypothesis could also explain the uneven pattern of otter decline: at some Alaskan locations the otter populations declined greatly, while at others they remained stable. Some experts explained these observations by suggesting that ocean currents or other environmental factors may have created uneven concentrations of pollutants along the coast. 听力

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写文书 A recent study reveals that people especially young people are reading far less literature, novels, plays, and poems, than they used to. This is troubling because the trend has unfortunate effects for the reading public, for culture in general, and for the future of literature itself.
While there has been a decline in book reading generally, the decline has been especially sharp for literature. This is unfortunate because nothing else provides the intellectual stimulation that literature does. Literature encourages us to exercise our imaginations, empathize the others, and expand our understanding of language. So by reading less literature, the reading public is missing out on important benefits.
Unfortunately, missing out on the benefits of literature is not the only problem. What are people reading instead? Consider the prevalence of self-help books on lists of best sellers. These are usually superficial poorly written, and intellectually undemanding. Additionally, instead of sitting down with a challenging novel, many persons are now more likely to turn on the television, watch a music video, or read a Web page. Clearly, diverting time previously spent in reading literature to trivial forms of entertainment has lowered the level of culture in general.
The trend of reading less literature is all the more regrettable because it is taking place during a period when good literature is being written. There are many talented writers today, but they lack an audience. This fact is bound to lead publishers to invest less in literature and so support fewer serious writers. Thus, the writing as well as the reading of literature is likely to decline because of the poor standards of today's readers. 听力

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写文书 Jane Austen (1775-1817) is one of the most famous of all English novelists, and today her novels are more popular than ever, with several recently adapted as Hollywood movies. But we do not have many records of what she looked like. For a long time, the only accepted image of Austen was an amateur sketch of an adult Austen made by her sister Cassandra. However, recently a professionally painted, full-length portrait of a teenage girl owned by a member of the Austen family has come up for sale. Although the professional painting is not titled Jane Austen, there are good reasons to believe she is the subject.
First, in 1882, several decades after Austen's death, Austen's family gave permission to use the portrait as an illustration in an edition of her letters. Austen's family clearly recognized it as a portrait of the author. So, for over a century now, the Austen family itself has endorsed the claim that the girl in the portrait is Jane Austen.
Second, the face in the portrait clearly resembles the one in Cassandra's sketch, which we know depicts Austen.
Though somewhat amateurish, the sketch communicates definite details about Austen's face. Even though the Cassandra sketch is of an adult Jane Austen, the features are still similar to those of the teenage girl in the painting. The eyebrows, nose, mouth, and overall shape of the face are very much like those in the full-length portrait.
Third, although the painting is unsigned and undated, there is evidence that it was painted when Austen was a teenager. The style links it to Ozias Humphrey, a society portrait painter who was the kind of professional the wealthy Austen family would hire. Humphrey was active in the late 1780s and early 1790s, exactly the period when Jane Austen was the age of the girl in the painting. 听力

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写文书 Private collectors have been selling and buying fossils, the petrified remains of ancient organisms, ever since the eighteenth century. In recent years, however, the sale of fossils, particularly of dinosaurs and other large vertebrates, has grown into a big business. Rare and important fossils are now being sold to private ownership for millions of dollars. This is an unfortunate development for both scientists and the general public.
The public suffers because fossils that would otherwise be donated to museums where everyone can see them are sold to private collectors who do not allow the public to view their collections. Making it harder for the public to see fossils can lead to a decline in public interest in fossils, which would be a pity.
More importantly, scientists are likely to lose access to some of the most important fossils and thereby miss out on potentially crucial discoveries about extinct life forms. Wealthy fossil buyers with a desire to own the rarest and most important fossils can spend virtually limitless amounts of money to acquire them. Scientists and the museums and universities they work for often cannot compete successfully for fossils against millionaire fossil buyers.
Moreover, commercial fossil collectors often destroy valuable scientific evidence associated with the fossils they unearth. Most commercial fossil collectors are untrained or uninterested in carrying out the careful field work and documentation that reveal the most about animal life in the past. For example, scientists have learned about the biology of nest-building dinosaurs called oviraptors by carefully observing the exact position of oviraptor fossils in the ground and the presence of other fossils in the immediate surroundings. Commercial fossil collectors typically pay no attention to how fossils lie in the ground or to the smaller fossils that may surround bigger ones. 听力

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写文书 Every year, forest fires and severe storms cause a great deal of damage to forests in the northwestern United States. One way of dealing with aftermath of these disasters is called salvage logging, which is the practice of removing dead trees from affected areas and using the wood for lumber, plywood, and other wood products. There are several reasons why salvage logging is beneficial both to a damaged forest and to the economy.
First, after a devastating fire, forests are choked with dead trees. If the trees are not removed, they will take years to decompose; in the meantime, no new trees can grow in the cramped spaces. Salvage logging, however, removes the remains of dead trees and makes room for fresh growth immediately, which is likely to help forest areas recover from the disaster.
Also, dead trees do more than just take up space. Decaying wood is highly suitable habitat for insects such as the spruce bark beetle, which in large numbers can damage live, healthy spruce trees. So by removing rotting wood, salvage logging helps minimize the dangers of insect infestation, thus contributing to the health of the forest.
Third and last, salvage logging has economic benefits. Many industries depend upon the forests for their production, and because of this a fire can have a very harmful effect on the economy. Often, however, the trees that have been damaged by natural disasters still can provide much wood that is usable by industries. Furthermore, salvage logging requires more workers than traditional logging operations do, and so it helps create additional jobs for local residents. 听力

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写文书 The cane toad is a large (1.8kg) amphibian species native to Central and South America. It was deliberately introduced to Australia in 1935 with the expectation that it would protect farmers' crops by eating harmful insects. Unfortunately, the toad multiplied rapidly, and a large cane toad population now threatens small native animals that are not pests. Several measures have been proposed to stop the spread of the cane toad in Australia.
One way to prevent the spread of the load would be to build a national fence. A fence that blocks the advance of the toads will prevent them from moving into those parts of Australia that they have not yet colonized. This approach has been used before: a national fence was erected in the early part of the twentieth century to prevent the spread of rabbits, another animal species that was introduced in Australia from abroad and had a harmful impact on its native ecosystems.
Second, the toads could be captured and destroyed by volunteers. Cane toads can easily be caught in simple traps and can even be captured by hand. Young toads and cane toad eggs are even easier to gather and destroy, since they are restricted to the water. If the Australian government were to organize a campaign among Australian citizens to join forces to destroy the toads, the collective effort might stop the toad from spreading.
Third, researchers are developing a disease-causing virus to control the cane toad populations. This virus will be specially designed: although it will be able to infect a number of reptile and amphibian species, it will not harm most of the infected species; it will specially harm only the cane toads. The virus will control the population of cane toads by preventing them from maturing and reproducing. 听力

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写文书 The United Kingdom (sometimes referred to as Britain) has a long and rich history of human settlement. Traces of buildings, tools, and art can be found from periods going back many thousands of years: from the Stone Age, through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, the time of the Roman colonization, the Middle Ages, up to the beginnings of the industrial age. Yet for most of the twentieth century, the science of archaeology, dedicated to uncovering and studying old cultural artifacts, was faced with serious problems and limitations in Britain.
First, many valuable artifacts were lost to construction projects. The growth of Britain's population, especially from the 1950s on, spurred a lot of new construction in British cities, towns, and villages. While digging foundations for new buildings, the builders often uncovered archaeologically valuable sites. Usually, however, they proceeded with the construction and did not preserve the artifacts. Many archaeologically precious artifacts were therefore destroyed.
Second, many archaeologists felt that the financial support for archaeological research was inadequate. For most of the twentieth century, archaeology was funded mostly through government funds and grants, which allowed archeologists to investigate a handful of the most important sites but which left hundreds of other interesting projects without support. Furthermore, changing government priorities brought about periodic reductions in funding.
Third, it was difficult to have a career in archaeology. Archaeology jobs were to be found at universities or with a few government agencies, but there were never many positions available. Many people who wanted to become archaeologists ended up pursuing other careers and contributing to archaeological research only as unpaid amateurs. 听力

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写文书 In the past century, the steady growth of the human population and the corresponding increase in agriculture and pesticide use have caused much harm to wildlife in the United States, birds in particular. Unfortunately for birds, these trends are likely to continue, with the result that the number of birds in the United States will necessarily decline.
First, as human populations and settlements continue to expand, birds' natural habitats will continue to disappear. Forests, wetlands, and grasslands will give way to ever more homes, mails, and offices. As the traditional areas suitable for birds keep decreasing, so will the size of the bird populations that depend on those vanishing habitats
Second, agricultural activities must increase to keep pace with the growing human population. The growth of agriculture will also result in the further destruction of bird habitats as more and more wilderness areas are converted to agricultural use. As a result, bird populations in rural areas will continue to decline.
Third, as human settlements expand and agriculture increases, the use of chemical pesticides will also increase. Pesticides are poisons designed to kill agricultural and home garden pests, such as insects, but inevitably, pesticides get into the water and into the food chain for birds where they can harm birds. Birds that eat the poisoned insects or drink contaminated water can die as a result, and even if pesticides do not kill birds outright, they can prevent them from reproducing successfully. So pesticides have significantly contributed to declines in bird population, and because there will continue to be a need to control agricultural pests in the future, this decline will continue. 听力

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写文书 In the 1950s, Torreya taxifoha, a type of evergreen tree once very common in the state of Florida, started to die out. No one is sure exactly what caused the decline, but chances are good that if nothing is done, Torreya will soon become extinct. Experts are considering three ways to address the decline of Torreya.
The first option is to reestablish Torreya in the same location in which it thrived for thousands of years. Torreya used to be found in abundance in the northern part of Florida, which has a specific microclimate. Microclimate exists when weather conditions inside a relatively small area differ from the region of which that area is a part. Northern Florida's microclimate is very favorable to Torreya's growth. This microclimate is wetter and cooler than the surrounding region's relatively dry, warm climate. Scientists have been working to plant Torreya seeds in the coolest, dampest areas of the microclimate.
The second option is to move Torreya to an entirely different location, far from its Florida microclimate. Torreya seeds and saplings have been successfully planted and grown in forests further north, where the temperature is significantly cooler. Some scientists believe that Torreya probably thrived in areas much further north in the distant past, so by relocating it now, in a process known as assisted migration, humans would simply be helping Torreya return to an environment that is more suited to its survival.
The third option is to preserve Torreya in research centers. Seeds and saplings can be moved from the wild and preserved in a closely monitored environment where it will be easier for scientists both to protect the species and conduct research on Torreya. This research can then be used to ensure the continued survival of the species. 听力

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写文书 Many consumers ignore commercial advertisements. In response, advertising companies have started using a new tactic, called "buzzing". The advertisers hire people, buzzers, who personally promote [buzz] products to people they know or meet. The key part is that the buzzers do not reveal that they are being paid to promote anything. They behave as though they were just spontaneously praising a product during normal conversation. Buzzing has generated a lot of controversy, and many critics would like to see it banned.
First, the critics complain that consumers should know whether a person praising a product is being paid to praise the product. Knowing this makes a big difference: we expect the truth from people who we believe do not have any motive for misleading us. But with buzzing what you hear is just paid advertising, which may well give a person incorrect information about the buzzed product.
Second, since buzzers pretend they are just private individuals, consumers listen to their endorsements less critically than they should. With advertisements in print or on TV, the consumer is on guard for questionable claims or empty descriptions such as "new and improved." But when consumers do not know they are being lobbied, they may accept claims they would otherwise be suspicious of. This may suit the manufacturers, but it could really harm consumers.
And worst of all is the harmful effect that buzzing is likely to have on social relationships. Once we become aware that people we meet socially may be buzzers with a hidden agenda, we will become less trustful of people in general. So buzzing will result in the spread of mistrust and the expectation of dishonesty. 听力

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写文书 In the United States, it had been common practice since the late 1960s no to suppress natural forest fires. The
"let it burn" policy assumed that forest fire would burn themselves out quickly, without causing much damage. However, in the summer of 1988, forest fires in Yellowstone, the most famous national park in the country, burned for more than two months and spread over a huge area, encompassing more than 800,000 acres. Because of the large scale of the damage, many people called for replacing the "let it burn" policy with a policy of extinguishing forest fires as soon as they appeared. Three kinds of damage caused by the "let it burn" policy were emphasized by critics of the policy.
First, Yellowstone fires caused tremendous damage to the park's trees and other vegetation. When the fires finally died out, nearly one third of Yellowstone's land had been scorched. Trees were charred and blackened from flames and smoke. Smaller plants were entirely incinerated. What had been a national treasure now seemed like a devastated wasteland
Second, the park wildlife was affected as well. Large animals like deer and elk were seen fleeing the fire. Man smaller species were probably unable to escape. There was also concern that the destruction of habitats and the disruption of food chains would make it impossible for the animals that survived the fire to return.
Third, the fires compromised the value of the park as a tourist attraction, which in turn had negative consequences for the ocal economy. .with several thousand acres of the park engulfed in flames, the tourist season was cut short, and a large number of visitors decided to stay away. Of course, local businesses that depended on park visitors suffered as a result. 听力

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写文书 Genetic modification, a process used to change an organism's genes and hence its characteristics, is now being used to improve trees through genetic modification. It is possible to create trees that produce more fruit, grow faster, or withstand adverse conditions. Planting genetically modified trees on a large scale promises to bring a number of benefits.
First, genetically modified trees are designed to be hardier than nature trees; that is, they are more likely to survive than their unmodified counterparts. In Hawaii, for example, a new pest-resistant species of papaya trees has been developed in response to ring spot virus infections that have repeatedly damaged the native papaya tree population. Planting the genetically modified papayas has largely put an end to the ring spot problem.
Moreover, genetically modified trees promise to bring a number of economic benefits to those who grow them. Genetically modified trees tend to grow faster, give greater yields of food, fruit, or other products and be hardier. This allows tree farmer to get faster and greater returns on their farming investment and save on pesticides as well.
Finally, the use of genetically modified trees can prevent overexploitation of wild trees. Because of the growing demand for firewood and building timber, many forests around the world are being cut down faster than they can be replaced. Introducing genetically modified trees, designed for fast growth and high yield in given geographic conditions, would satisfy the demand for wood in many of those areas and save the endangered native trees, which often include unique or rare species. 听力

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写文书 Ethanol fuel, made from plants such as corn and sugar cane, has been advocated by some people as an alternative to gasoline in the United States. However, many critics argue that ethanol is not good replacement for gasoline for several reasons.
First, the increased use of ethanol fuel would not help to solve one of the biggest environmental problems caused by gasoline use: global warming. Like gasoline, ethanol releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when it is burned for fuel and carbon dioxide is greenhouse gas: it helps trap heat in the atmosphere. Thus, ethanol offers no environmental advantage over gasoline.
Second, the production of significant amounts of ethanol would dramatically reduce the amount of plants available for uses other fuel. For example, much of the corn now grown in the United States is used to feed farm animals such as cows and chickens. It is estimated that if ethanol were used to satisfy just 10 percent of the fuel needs in the United States, more than 60 percent of the corn currently grown in the United States would have to be used to produce ethanol. If most of the corn were used to produce ethanol, a substantial source of food for animals would disappear.
Third, ethanol fuel will never be able to compete with gasoline on price. Although the prices of ethanol and gasoline for the consumer are currently about the same, this is only because of the help in the form of tax subsidies given to ethanol producers by the United States government. These tax subsidies have cost the United States government over $11 billion in the past 30 years. If the United States government were to stop helping producers in this way, the price of ethanol would increase greatly. 听力

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写文书 Populations of the yellow cedar, a species of tree that is common in northwestern North America, have been steadily declining for more than a century now, since about 1880. Scientists have advanced several hypotheses explain this decline.
One hypothesis is that the yellow cedar decline may be caused by insect parasites, specially the cedar bark beetle. This beetle is known to attack cedar trees: the beetle larvae eat the wood. There have been recorded instances of sustained beetle attacks overwhelming and killing yellow cedars, so this insect is a good candidate for the cause of the tree's decline.
A second hypothesis attributes the decline to brown bears. Bears sometimes claw at the cedars in order to eat the tree bark, which has high sugar content. In fact, the cedar bark can contain as much sugar as the wild berries that are a staple of the bears' diet. Although the bears' clawing is unlikely to destroy trees by itself, their aggressive feeding habits may critically weaken enough trees to be responsible for the decline.
The third hypothesis states that gradual changes of climate may be to blame. Over the last hundred years, the patterns of seasonal as well as day-to-day temperature have changed in northwestern North America. These changes have affected the root systems of the yellow cedar trees: the fine surface roots now start growing in the late winter rather than in the early spring. The change in the timing of root growth may have significant consequences. Growing roots are sensitive and are therefore likely to suffer damage from partial freezing on cold winter nights. This frozen root damage may be capable of undermining the health of the whole tree, eventually killing it. 听力

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写文书 Animal fossils usually provide very little opportunity to study the actual animal tissues, because in fossils the animals' living tissues have been largely replaced by minerals. Thus, scientists were very excited recently when it appeared that a 70-million-year-old fossil of Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex), a dinosaur, might still contain remains of the actual tissues of the animal. The discovery was made when researchers deliberately broke open the T. rex's leg bone, thereby exposing its insides to reveal materials that seem to be remains of blood vessels, red blood cells, and collagen matrix.
First, the breaking of the fossilized leg bone revealed many small ranching channels inside, which probably correspond to hollows in the bones where blood vessels were once located. The exciting finding was the presence of a soft, flexible organic substance inside the channels. This soft substance may very well represent the remains of the actual blood vessels of T. rex.
Second, microscopic examination of the various parts of the inner bone revealed the presence of spheres that could be the remains of red blood cells, tests showed that the spheres contained iron-a material vital to the role of red blood cells in transporting oxygen to tissues. Moreover, the spheres had dark red centers (substances with iron tend to be reddish in color) and were also about the size of red blood cells.
Third, scientists performed a test on the dinosaur leg bone that showed that it contained collagen. Collagen is a fibrous protein that is a main component of living bone tissue, in which it forms a so-called collagen matrix. Collagen (or its chemical derivatives) is exactly the kind of biochemical material that one would expect to find in association with bone tissue. 听力

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写文书 In 1938 an archaeologist in Iraq acquired a set of clay jars that had been excavated two years earlier by villagers constructing a railroad line. The vessel was about 2,200 years old. Each clay jay contained a copper cylinder surrounding an iron rod. The archaeologist proposed that vessel were ancient electric batteries and even demonstrated that they can produce a small electric current when filled with some liquids. However, it is not likely that the vessels were actually used as electric batteries in ancient times.
First of all, if the vessels were used as batteries, they would probably have been attached to some electricity conductors such as metal wires. But there is no evidence that any metal wires were located near the vessels. All that has been excavated are the vessels themselves.
Second, the copper cylinders inside the jars look exactly like copper cylinders discovered in the ruins of Seleucia, an ancient city located nearby. We know that the copper cylinders from Seleucia were used for holding scrolls of sacred texts, not for generating electricity. Since the cylinders found with the jars have the same shape, it is very likely they were used for holding scrolls as well. That no scrolls were found inside the jars can be explained by the fact that the scrolls simply disintegrated over the centuries.
Finally, what could ancient people have done with the electricity that the vessels were supposed to have generated? They had no devices that replied on electricity. As batteries, the vessels would have been completely useless to them. 听力

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写文书 The zebra mussel, a freshwater shellfish native to Eastern Europe, has long been spreading out from its original habitats and has now reached parts of North America. There are reasons to believe that this invasion cannot be stopped and that it poses a serious threat to freshwater fish populations in all of North America.
First, the history of the zebra mussel's spread suggests that the invasion might be unstoppable. It is a prime example of an invasion made possible by human transportation. From the zebra mussel's original habitats in Eastern Europe, ships helped spread it out along new canals built to connect Europe's waterways. The mussel can attach itself to a ship's bottom or can survive in the water—called "ballast water"-that the ship needs to take on to properly balance its cargo. By the early nineteenth century, the mussel had spread to the whole of Europe. It was later carried to the east coast of North America in the ballast water of ships traveling from Europe. The way ships have spread the zebra mussel in the past strongly suggests that the species will soon colonize all of North America.
Moreover, once zebra mussels are carried to a new habitat, they can dominate it. They are a hardy species that does well under a variety of conditions, and they have a high rate of reproduction. Most important, however, zebra mussels often have no predators in their new habitats, and species without natural predators are likely to dominate their habitats.
Finally, zebra mussels are likely to cause a decline in the overall fish population in habitats where they become dominant. The mussels are plankton eaters, which means that they compete for food with many freshwater fish species. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 The little ice age was a period of unusually cold temperature in many parts of the world that lasted from about the year 1350 until 1900CE. There were unusually harsh winters, and glaciers grew larger in many areas. Scientists have long wondered what caused the Little Ice Age. Several possible causes have been proposed.
First, the cooling may have been caused by disrupting of ocean currents. Before the Little Ice Age, there was a period of unusually warm weather during which glaciers melted. These melted glaciers sent a large amount of cold freshwater into the Gulf Stream, a large ocean current that strongly affects Earth's climate. Some scientists believe that this freshwater was enough to temporarily disrupt the Gulf Stream. Such a disruption could have caused the Little Ice Age.
Second, volcanic eruption could have caused the Little Ice Age. When volcanoes erupt, they send dark clouds of dust and sulfur gas into the atmosphere. These clouds, which can spread over great areas, block some sunlight form reaching Earth's surface. This can decrease the global temperatures. Scientists know of several volcanic eruption that took place during the Little Ice Age.
Third, substantial decreases in human populations may have contributed indirectly to the cooling of the climate. For a variety of reason (disease, warfare, social disruption), the human population just before the Little Ice Age and during the early part of it was lower than it had been in a long time. Forest trees started growing on fields that were no longer used for agriculture. Since trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, they decrease the greenhouse effect that keeps Earth warm. With more forest trees carbon dioxide, earth became cooler. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 When he returned from the expedition, he claimed to have reached the pole on April 7, 1909. This report made him into an international celebrity. Though some historians have expressed doubts that Peary did in fact reach the North Pole, three arguments provide strong support for the truth of Peary's claim.
First, the National Geographic Society put together a committee that was instructed to conduct a thorough investigation of Peary's records and equipment. At the end of the investigation, the committee concluded that Peary's accounts were consistent and persuasive and declared that he had indeed reached the North Pole.
Second, a recent expedition provides support for Peary's claim that he reached the North Pole in only 37 days after setting out from Ellesmere Island off the coast of Greenland. Skeptics used to argue that Peary could not have traveled that fast, since even modern snowmobiles take longer to cover the same distance. However, a British explorer named Tom Avery recently made the same trek in LESS THAN 37 DAYS. IN FACT, Avery used the same kind of dogsled and the same number and breed of dogs as Peary had. Thus, Peary's claims are not impossible, and he very well might have been telling the truth.
Third, there are photographs taken by Peary that support his claim to have reached the North Pole. Measuring the shadows in Peary's photographs makes it possible to calculate the Surf's position in the sNy. The surf's position established from the photographs corresponds exactly to the Surf's position as it should have been at the North Pole on that day. This provides strong evidence that Peary reached the North Pole and took the photographs there. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 Large numbers of dinosaur fossils have been discovered in deposits on Alaska's North Slope, a region that today experiences an extremely cold, arctic climate. One hundred million years ago, when those dinosaurs were alive, the environment of the North Slope was already inhospitable, especially during the winter when it experienced several months of total darkness. How did the dinosaurs survive the wintertime? Paleontologists have proposed that one of the most common North Slope dinosaurs, the elephant-sized edmontosaur (Edmontosaurus), survived the winter by migrating south to more hospitable regions. Several arguments support the migration hypothesis.
First, the edmontosaur's diet supports the migration hypothesis. Edmontosaurs fed exclusively on plants. Since there would have been no plants growing during the cold and dark North Slope winter, it appears that the edmontosaur must have left for at least part of the year and migrated to more temperate zones to find food.
Second, many edmontosaur skeletons have been unearthed from the same site. This suggests that edmontosaurs lived in herd. Many modern-day migratory animals, such as caribou and buffalo, live and migrate in herds as well. Moving in herds helps animals coordinate their migration. The finding that edmonotsaurs lived in herds further supports the migration hypothesis.
Finally, edmonosaurs were physically capable of migrating long distances. To reach more hospitable regions, the edmontosaur had to migrate about 1,600 kilometers southward. To make such a journey, the edmontosaur needed to move at about five kilometers per hour for several weeks, which certainly could do. These animals could run very fast, reaching speeds up to 45 kilometers per hour. It could have easily used its locomotive power to move to warmer climate during the harsh arctic winter. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 A little over 2,200 years ago, the Roman navy attacked the Greek port city of Syracuse. According to some ancient historians, the Greeks defended themselves with an ingenious weapon called a "burning mirror", a polished copper surface curved to focus the Sun's rays onto Roman ships, causing them to catch fire. However, we have several reasons to suspect that the story of the burning mirror is just a myth and the Greeks of Syracuse never really built such a device.
First, the ancient Greeks were not technologically advanced enough to make such a device. A mirror that would focus sunlight with sufficient intensity to set ships on fire would have to be several meters wide. Moreover, the mirror would have to have a very precise parabolic curvature (a curvature derived from a geometric shape known as the parabola). The technology for manufacturing a large sheet of copper with such specification did not exist in the ancient world.
Second, the burning mirror would have taken a long time to set the ships on fire. In an experiment conducted to determine whether a burning mirror was feasible, a device concentrating the Sun's rays on a wooden object 30 meters away took ten minutes to set the object on fire; and during that time, the object had to be unmoving. It is unlikely that Roman ships stayed perfectly still for that much time. Such a weapon would therefore have been very impractical and ineffective.
Third, a burning mirror does not seem like an improvement on a weapon that the Greeks already had: flaming arrows shooting at an enemy's ships with flaming arrows was a common way of setting the ships on fire. The burning mirror and flaming arrows would have been effective at about the same distance. So the Greeks had no reason to build a weapon like a burning mirror. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 A fossil skeleton of a dinosaur called Sinosauropteryx, preserved in volcanic ash, was discovered in Liaoning, China, in 1996. Interestingly, the fossil included a pattern of fine lines surrounding the skeletal bones. Some paleontologists interpret the lines as evidence that Sinosauropteryx was a feathered dinosaur, citing several reasons.
First, the critics point out that the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a living dinosaur, but rather structures that were formed after the animal's death. After the animal died and was buried in volcanic ash, its skin may have decomposed into fibers. The skin fibers then became preserved as lines in fossils; the lines were misinterpreted as evidence of feathers.
Second, even if the fine lines are remains of real structures of a Snosauropteryx, scientists cannot tell with certainty what part of the dinosaur's anatomy the structures were. Many dinosaurs had frills, ornamental fanshaped structures growing out of some parts of their bodies. Some of the critics argue that the lines surrounding the skeleton are much more likely to be fossilized remains of frills than remains of feathers.
A third objection is based on the fact that the usual functions of feathers are to help animals fly or regulate their internal temperature. However, the structures represented by the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil were mostly located along the backbone and the tail of the animal. This would have made the structures quite useless for flight and of very limited use in thermoregulation. This suggests that the lines do not represent feathers. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 Starting in the 1960s and continuing until the 1980s, sailors in Russian submarines patrolling the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean would occasionally hear strange sounds. These underwater noises reminded the submarine crews of frog croaks, so they called the sounds "quackers" (from the Russian word for frog sounds). The sources of the sound seemed to be moving with great speed and agility; however, the submarines' sonar (a method of detecting objects underwater) was unable to detect any solid moving objects in the area. There are several theories about what might have caused the odd sounds.
The first theory suggests that the strange noises were actually the calls of male and female orca whales during a courtship ritual. Orca whales are known to inhabit the areas where the submarines were picking up the bizarre noises. Orcas have been studied extensively, and the sounds they make when trying to attract a male are similar to those that the submarines were detecting.
A second idea is that the sounds were caused by giant squid. Giant squids are giant marine invertebrates that live deep in the ocean and prey on large fish. They are difficult to detect by sonar because they have soft bodies with no skeleton. Not much is known about giant squid behavior, but their complex brains suggest they are intelligent animals. It is possible they have the ability to emit sound, and perhaps they approached the submarines out of curiosity.
A third theory suggest the Russian submarines were picking up stray sounds from some military technology, like another country's submarines that were secretly patrolling the area. Perhaps the foreign submarines did not register on sonar because they were using a kind of technology specifically designed to make them undetectable by sonar. The strange froglike sounds may have been emitted by the foreign submarines unintentionally. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 Carved stone balls are curious type of artifact found at a number of locations in Scotland. They date from the late Neolithic period, around 4,000 years ago. They are round in shape; they were carved from several types of stone; most are about 70 mm in diameter; and many are ornamented to some degree. Archaeologists do not agree about their purpose and meaning, but there are several theories.
One theory is that the carved stone balls were weapons used in hunting or fighting. Some of the stone balls have been found with holes in them, and many have grooves on the surface. It is possible that a cord was strung through the holes or laid in the grooves around the ball. Holding the stone balls at the end of the cord would have allowed a person to swing it around or throw it.
A second theory is that the carved stone balls were used as part of a primitive system of weights and measures. The fact that they are so nearly uniform in size—at 70 mm in diameter—suggests that the balls were interchangeable and represented some standard unit of measure. They could have been used as standard weights to measure quantities of grain or other food, or anything that needed to be measured by weight on a balance or scale for the purpose of trade.
A third theory is that the carved stone balls served a social purpose as opposed to a practical or utilitarian one. This view is supported by the fact that many stone balls have elaborate designs. The elaborate carving suggests that the stones may have marked the important social status of their owners. 听力

字数限制:250词

写文书 A huge marine mammal known as Steller's sea cow once lived in the waters around Bering Island off the coast of Siberia. It was described in 1741 by Georg W. Steller, a naturalist who was among the first European to see one. In 1768 the animal became extinct. The reasons for the extinction are not clear. Here are three theories about the main cause of the extinction.
First, the sea cows may have been overhunted by groups of native Siberian people. If this theory is correct, then the sea cow population would have originally been quite large, but hundreds of years off too much hunting by the native people diminished the number of sea cows. Sea cows were a good source of food in a harsh environment, so overhunting by native people could have been the main cause of extinction.
Second, the sea cow population may have become extinct because of ecosystems disturbances that caused a decline in their main source of food, kelp (a type of sea plant). Kelp populations respond negatively to a number of ecological changes. It is possible that ecological changes near Bering island some time before 1768 caused a decrease of the kelp that the sea cows depend on.
Third, the main cause of extinction of the sea cows could have been European fur traders who came to the island after 1741. It is recorded that the fur traders caught the last sea cow in 1768. It thus seems reasonable to believe that hunting by European fur traders, who possessed weapons that allowed them to quickly kill a large number of the animals, was the main cause of the sea cow's extinction. 听力

字数限制:250词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年5月11日,发布于http://aadps.net/2016/11056.html

TOEFL独立写作练习

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  • 写文书 At universities and colleges, sports and social activities are just as important as classes and libraries and should receive equal financial support.
  • 写文书 Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship between people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
  • 写文书 It is more important to keep your old friends than it is to make new friends.
  • 写文书 In twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today.
  • 写文书 People today spend too much time on personal enjoyment-doing things they like to do-rather than doing things they should do.
  • 写文书 Life today is easier and more comfortable than it was when your grandparents were children.
  • 写文书 It is more important for students to understand ideas and concepts than it is for them to learn facts.
  • 写文书 Television advertising directed towards young children (aged two to five) should not be allowed.
  • 写文书 Technology has made children less creative than they were in the past.
  • 写文书 Playing computer games is a waste of time. Children should not be allowed to play them.
  • 写文书 Some people say that the Internet provides people with a lot of valuable information. Others think access to much information creates problems. Which view do you agree with?
  • 写文书 It is better to have broad knowledge of many academic subjects than to specialize in one specific subject.
  • 写文书 The extended family (grandparents, cousins, aunts, and uncles) is less important now than it was in the past.
  • 写文书 People benefit more from traveling in their own country than from traveling to foreign countries.
  • 写文书 In order to become financially responsible adults, children should learn to manage their own money at young age.
  • 写文书 The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide.
  • 写文书 Most advertisements make products seem much better than they really are.
  • 写文书 Students are more influenced by their teachers than by their friends.
  • 写文书 In order to be well-informed, a person must get information from many different news resources.
  • 写文书 Successful people try new things and take risks rather than only doing what they know how to do well.
  • 写文书 For success in a future job, the ability to relate well to people is more important than studying hard in school.
  • 写文书 Teachers should not make their social or political views known to students in the classroom.
  • 写文书 In today's world, it is more important to work quickly and risk making mistakes than to work slowly and make sure that everything is correct.
  • 写文书 One of the best ways that parents can help their teenage children prepare for adult life is to encourage them to take a part-time job.
  • 写文书 Young people nowadays do not give enough time to helping their communities.
  • 写文书 It is better for children to choose jobs that are similar to their parents' jobs than to choose jobs that are very different from their parents' jobs.
  • 写文书 If people have the opportunity to get a secure job, they should take it right away rather than wait for a job that may be more satisfying.
  • 写文书 Parents today are more involved in their children's education than parents were in the past.
  • 写文书 To improve the quality of education, universities should spend more money on salaries for university professors.
  • 写文书 It is more enjoyable to have a job where you work only three days a week for long hours than to have a job where you work five days a week for shorter hours.
  • 写文书 Because the world is changing so quickly, people now are less happy or less satisfied with their lives than people were in the past.
  • 写文书 Young people today have no influence on the important decisions that determine the future of society as a whole.
  • 写文书 When teachers assign projects on which students must work together, the students learn much more effectively than when they are asked to work alone on projects.
  • 写文书 Educating children is a more difficult task today than it was in the past because they spend so much time on cell phone, online games, and social networking website.
  • 写文书 In twenty years there will be fewer cars in use than there are today.
  • 写文书 It is better to finish a project completely and then begin another project than to work on two or more projects at the same time.
  • 写文书 Many people nowadays spend too much money on their pets (dogs, cats, or other animals), although there are better uses for this money.
  • 写文书 Some parents offer their school-age children money for each high grade (mark) they get in school. Do you think this is a good idea?
  • 写文书 Teacher were more appreciated and valued by society in the past than they were nowadays.
  • 写文书 Workers are more satisfied when they have many different types of tasks to do during the workday than when they do similar tasks all day long.
  • 写文书 In the past, young people depended too much on their parents to make decisions for them; today young people are better able to make decisions about their own lives.
  • 写文书 The opinions of celebrities, such as famous entertainers and athletes, are more important to younger people than they are to older people.
  • 写文书 It is important to know about events happening around the world, even if it is unlikely that they will affect your daily life.
  • 写文书 Because modern life is very complex, it is essential for young people to have the ability to plan and organize.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

字数限制:350词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年4月25日,发布于http://aadps.net/2016/11042.html

俄克拉荷马大学(University of Oklahoma)留学文书写作指南(2017版)

文书题目

本校采用Common Application作为官方认可的网申系统,可能还至少需要完成一篇标准的Common Essay
本校留学文书中出现了学习计划类文书,请仔细了解学校和所申请项目的相关情况。

写文书 Please briefly explain your meaningful international experience.

翻译:请简单解释一下你有意义的海外经历。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:问题特定,100词

写文书 The University of Oklahoma believes strongly in educating leaders of communities in Oklahoma, as well as across the country and the world. Please share your leadership experiences and why they are important to you.

翻译:我校坚定的持有教育俄克拉荷马本地社区、全国乃至全世界的领袖们这一信念。请分享你的领导力相关经验,说明它们为何对你重要。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:奖学金特定,650词

写文书 The University of Oklahoma is home to a vibrant, diverse and compassionate University community. Our President, David L. Boren, refers to our strong community as "the OU Family." Please describe your cultural and community service activities and why you chose to participate in them.

翻译:我校有一个生机勃勃、多元化且包容的大学社区。校长戴维将其称作“俄大之家”。请描述你的文化与社区服务活动,以及你为何选择参加它们。

解析:AADPS分类II-a

字数限制:奖学金特定,650词

写文书 What is your career area of interest, and why do you have a desire to work in this particular field?

翻译:你感兴趣的事业领域是什么?为什么你渴望在这个特定领域工作?

解析:AADPS分类I-c

字数限制:奖学金特定,专业特定,650词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年8月16日,发布于http://aadps.net/2014/3689.html

俄勒冈大学(University of Oregon)留学文书写作指南(2017版)

文书题目

本校采用Common Application作为官方认可的网申系统,可能还至少需要完成一篇标准的Common Essay
本校留学文书中出现了学习计划类文书,请仔细了解学校和所申请项目的相关情况。

As you've looked into what it will be like to attend Oregon, you've hopefully learned about what makes Ducks unique. No two are alike, though, so tell us what makes you who you are, and how that connects to our campus community. We are interested in your thoughts and experiences recognizing difference and supporting equity and inclusion, and choosing one of the two following options will guide you in sharing those thoughts.

  • 写文书 Describe an experience with discrimination, whether it was fighting against discrimination or recognizing your contribution to discriminating against a person or group. What did you learn from the experience? In what ways will you bring those lessons to University of Oregon?
  • 写文书 The University of Oregon values difference, and we take pride in our diverse community. Please explain how you will share your experiences, values and interests with our community. In what ways can you imagine offering your support to others?

翻译:正如你已经了解了在俄勒冈大学学习是什么样子的,你也应该明白是什么使我校学生(鸭子是俄勒冈大学的吉祥物,也是该校学生的昵称。注意首字母大写)独一无二。没有两件事物是完全相同的,所以请告诉我们是什么塑造了今天的你,以及这样的你与我们的校园社区有怎样的联系。我们对于你在认识差异以及支持平等与包容相关的想法和经历非常感兴趣,请在下列两题中任选一题来分享你的这些想法。

  • 请描述一个关于歧视的经历,无论这个经历是你反抗歧视的,还是你发现自己站在了歧视某个个人或者团体的一边。你从这个经历中学到了什么?你会怎样把学到的经验教训带到俄勒冈大学?
  • 俄勒冈大学重视不同,而且我们为多元化的校园环境感到自豪。请描述一下你会如何把自己的经验、价值观以及兴趣带到我们的校园。想象一下你会如何为其他人提供支持?

解析:

字数限制:可选,二选一,250-500词

写文书 This section can be used for various purposes, and gives you an optional opportunity for discussing any of the following.

  • Your academic record might have included periods of low performance such as grades of D or F, inconsistent or downward trends in grades, deficiencies in particular subject areas, or discrepancies between your test scores and GPA. This might be because of special personal circumstances such as death or illness of a parent, caring for a family member, homelessness, frequent moves, or due to learning disabilities/differences or study habits. If relevant, be sure to let us know what actions you have taken in order to be successful, and what you have learned from the experience.
  • You want to help us better understand how your involvement in activities was limited by work or family obligations, or by the unique setting of your school or community.
  • You need to share any other information with us about yourself that is not provided elsewhere, or UO admissions staff told you to provide certain information in this space.

翻译:可用此可选的部分来解释下述情况:

  • 在学业中你可能会有这样的情况,分数比较低(D或者F)、成绩时好时坏、成绩直线下滑、在某些特定的科目中成绩不理想,或者你的标化成绩和GPA分数不一致。这种情况可能是因为特殊的个人原因,比如父母一方去世或者生病、照顾家庭成员、无家可归、频繁搬家、学习障碍或学习习惯。如果有这样的情况,请一定要告诉我们你为了获得成功,做出了哪些努力,以及你在这些经历中学到了什么。
  • 你想让我们更好地了解你所参加的活动是如何受限于工作、家庭责任或者学校或社会制度的。
  • 你需要和我们分享在申请中的其他地方未透露的个人信息,或者俄勒冈招生办的工作人员指名要你在这页提供特定信息。

解析:AADPS分类III-a

字数限制:可选,500词

  • 写文书 F. Scott Fitzgerald said, ''The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.'' What does it mean to live and think in a state of irresolution?
  • 写文书 Doctors, lawyers, journalists, artists, and scientists are among many who rely upon evidence to do their work. What is evidence, and how do you recognize it?
  • 写文书 Werner Heisenberg, renowned physicist, said: "There is a fundamental error in separating the parts from the whole, the mistake of atomizing what should not be atomized. Unity and complementarity constitute reality." Is Heisenberg right?

翻译:

  • 菲茨杰拉德曾说:“检验一流智力的方法,是看一个人头脑中持有两种截然相反的观点时是否仍然能正常运作。”在犹豫不决的状态中生活和思考有什么意义?
  • 医生、律师、记者、艺术家以及科学家都是依靠证据来工作的人。什么是证据?你又该如何辨认它?
  • 著名的物理学家维尔纳·海森堡曾说:“脱离整体看部分是一个根本性的错误,它分裂了不该分裂的。统一和补充才构成了现实。”他说得对吗?

解析:

字数限制:项目特定,三选一,250-650词

题目归档

2016-2017 [+]

2015-2016 [+]

申请问答

问:我什么时候能收到录取通知?
答:申请EA(11月1日截止)的学生,会在12月15日收到通知。申请RD(1月15日截止)的学生,会在4月收到通知。无论什么时候申请,你都需要在5月1日前确定你的入学意向。

问:我需要提供推荐信吗?
答:不需要。但是如果你的GPA在3.00或以下,我们建议你提供推荐信。

问:申请中的个人陈述或短文(personal statement/essay)和特殊情况陈述(special circumstances statement)有什么不同?
答:个人陈述或短文是必须的,特殊情况陈述不是必须的,但是它可以用来解释你在生活中遇到的困难是如何妨碍到高中学业的。

问:有必要面试或访校吗?
答:不需要。但是访校是确定UO是否适合你并让你感受校园氛围的最好方式。周一到周五每天有五次校园游览,周六有一次,由在校生负责。团体的信息咨询会在游览结束后直接进行,主要会关注在一些常见问题和事情上。我们建议至少用半天的时间来访校,尤其在你想申请一些特别的学院时,你可以借此机会见到这些学院的指导员或者教员。

招生办没有正式的面试,但是我们欢迎你和我们的招生顾问针对一些特殊的问题进行一对一的交流。预约或者不预约都可以。

问:国际学生需要提供SAT或者ACT成绩吗?
答:不需要,但是如果有的话,建议提交。请注意建筑学院Robert D. Clark Honors College对所有申请者都要求SAT成绩,包括国际学生。

问:UO提供双录取吗?
答:是的,UO对符合我们录取要求但是没达到英语能力要求的学生提供双录取项目

问:AP和IB的成绩可以转学分吗?
答:可以。更多信息请查看网页

问:国际学生可以申请本科双学位吗?
答:可以。

问:我已经提交了申请,接下来是什么?
答:一旦收到了你的申请材料,我们就会给你发一封确认信,同时会发给你一个ID账号以及访问码方便你查看申请状态。如果你被录取,我们会邮寄录取通知书和I-20表格。

问:国际学生可以申请财政资助和奖学金吗?
答:UO为国际学生提供多种奖学金和财政资助,通过国际事务办公室可以提交此项申请。国际学生也可以向学生财政资助和奖学金办公室申请一般的大学奖学金。

问:国际学生可以在校园打工吗?
答:可以,根据美国法律,校园打工是国际学生唯一的合法工作方式。

问:我怎样能拿到学生签证?
答:大多数入学UO的国际学生拿的都是学生签证(F-1)。你被录取后会收到录取通知书和I-20表格,你要拿着I-20表格去美国大使馆或领事馆获取学生签证。美国国务院提供更多学生签证的信息。如果你正在美国的某一所学院或大学就读,那你必须拿到一份UO发放的I-20表格,并确保你已经填写了国际事务办公室发放的国际转学生表格。你的SEVIS档案必须由你之前的学校发给UO。如果你在学生签证上还有其他问题,请联系国际事务办公室的SEVIS负责人

问:我需要提交免疫记录吗?
答:是的。UO要求所有入学的国际学生提供麻疹和腮腺炎免疫的证明。更多信息请点击UO健康中心

问:我需要医疗保险吗?
答:是的,所有国际学生都要有医疗保险

问:我可以延迟入学吗?
答:不可以。如果想在其他学期入学,你必须提交一份新的申请,包括你最新的成绩单。申请费在一学年(从秋季到夏季学期)内都有效。

问:我必须参加国际学生的迎新活动吗?
答:是的,国际学生迎新活动可以帮助学生很好的过渡到UO的学习和生活中来,所以所有的国际新生都要求在每学期开学前参加迎新活动。

问:我怎样了解更多关于尤金的信息?
答:关于尤金以及它周边地区的信息,可以查看独特的尤金

问:转学生的录取要求是什么?
答:季度学分(四学期制)在35分或以下,或者学期学分(两学期制)在23分或以下的申请者,录取要求同时参照新生和转学生的标准。季度学分在36分或以上,学期学分在24分或以上的申请者,录取要求只参照转学生的标准。更多信息请查看转学生录取要求

问:我怎样申请住校?
答:一旦你被UO录取,你就可以申请住校并在网上签署合同。宿舍有限,请尽早申请。更多信息请查看学校宿舍

问:EA是有约束力的吗?
答:没有。EA意味着你在11月1日前申请,会在12月15日收到录取结果。你仍然可以在5月1日前决定你的入学意向。

*以上问答内容由AADPS根据第一手资料编译,并不代表AADPS自身观点。

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年8月16日,发布于http://aadps.net/2014/3687.html

堪萨斯大学(University of Kansas)留学文书写作指南(2017版)

文书题目

本校留学文书中出现了学习计划类文书,请仔细了解学校和所申请项目的相关情况。

写文书 If you have had any period of time longer than 3 months after high school when you were not enrolled in an educational program, write a short statement about your activity during that time. If you attended courses of any kind, include that information.

翻译:如果你在高中毕业后,有超过三个月的时间没有上学,请写一个简短声明描述你那段时间的活动。如果你在此期间学了任何课程,请包括这个信息。

解析:AADPS分类III-a

字数限制:可选,500词

  • 写文书 Discuss your personal and academic goals and how you hope to achieve them at KU.
  • 写文书 Provide a clear and detailed description of your study objectives. Be specific about your field of study and your specialized interests within this field.
  • 写文书 Explain the unique perspectives you hope to gain in the U.S. and how you intend to use these skills, knowledge and experience upon your return to your home country.
  • 写文书 A topic of your choice demonstrating writing and critical thinking skills.

翻译:

  • 谈谈你的个人目标和学术目标,以及你想要怎样在堪萨斯大学实现它们。
  • 请清晰具体的描述你的学习目标。具体到你所选择的学术领域和你在该领域的具体兴趣。
  • 解释你期望在美国获得的独特视角,以及在你回到祖国后将要如何使用这些技能、知识和经验。
  • 自拟题目,展示你的写作和批判性思维能力。

解析:

字数限制:奖学金特定,四选一,500词

写文书 Have you visited an architect's or engineer's office? If yes, please describe your experience. If no, please type N/A.

翻译:你曾拜访过建筑师或者工程师的办公室吗?如果有,请描述一下你的经历。如果没有,请写N/A。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:专业特定

写文书 Architecture Interest Profile
What has led to your interest in this profession?

  • Friends
  • High School courses or particular teachers/counselors
  • Relatives in related professions
  • Your view of your abilities
  • Your spare time interests, such as doodling
  • Other (please list)
    Please comment on the above items you have checked.

翻译:建筑专业文书:
是什么使你对这个专业感兴趣?

  • 朋友
  • 高中课程或老师
  • 相关行业的亲戚
  • 你对你自己能力的看法
  • 你空闲时间的兴趣,例如信手涂鸦
  • 其他(请列出)
    请说明以上选择。

解析:AADPS分类I-c

字数限制:专业特定

写文书 What are your extracurricular interests and activities?

  • Athletics
  • Art
  • Music
  • Debate, writing
  • Newspaper, yearbook
  • Other (please list)
    Please comment on the above items you have checked.

翻译:你有哪些课外兴趣和活动?

  • 体育
  • 艺术
  • 音乐
  • 辩论、写作
  • 报纸、年鉴
  • 其他(请列出)
    请说明以上选择。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:专业特定

写文书 What is your work experience?

  • Construction
  • Graphics/layout/printing firm
  • Engineering firm
  • Architectural firm
  • Restaurant or other retail services
  • Other (please list)
    Please comment on the above items you have checked.

翻译:你有哪些工作经验?

  • 建筑工地
  • 制图/排版/印刷公司
  • 工程公司
  • 建筑师事务所
  • 餐厅或其他零售服务
  • 其他(请列出)
    请说明以上选择。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:专业特定

写文书 Please list any prizes and awards in art, architecture, and design-related fields which you have received. If none, type N/A.

翻译:请列出任何你在艺术、建筑和设计领域得到的奖项。如果没有,就写N/A。

解析:AADPS分类I-b

字数限制:专业特定

写文书 Please write an essay explaining your interest in our programs and in the professions we represent and why you feel we should admit you.

翻译:请写一篇文书解释你对我们项目和这一行业的兴趣,以及为什么你觉得我们应该录取你。

解析:AADPS分类I-c

字数限制:专业特定,300词

  • 写文书 What has been your past experience(s) in the areas of Visual Art? (For example: This could include courses you've taken, achievements and awards you've received, etc.)
  • 写文书 Describe your professional aspirations and career goals in the areas of Visual Arts.
  • 写文书 To what other educational institutions have you applied? What do you expect from your educational experience?

翻译:

  • 你过去在视觉艺术领域的经验是什么?(例如:可以包括你学的课程,获得的成就和奖项)
  • 描述你在视觉艺术领域中的职业抱负和职业目标。
  • 你还申请了哪些大学?你期望从你的教育经历中得到什么?

解析:

字数限制:专业特定,每题250词

  • 写文书 What is design?
  • 写文书 How has design impacted your life?
  • 写文书 How do you wish to use your design degree to impact the world?

翻译:

  • 设计是什么?
  • 设计如何影响了你的生活?
  • 你希望如何使用你的设计学位去影响世界?

解析:

字数限制:专业特定,每题200-250词

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年8月16日,发布于http://aadps.net/2014/3683.html

德雷塞尔大学(Drexel University)留学文书写作指南(2017版)

文书题目

本校采用Common Application作为官方认可的网申系统,可能还至少需要完成一篇标准的Common Essay
本校留学文书中出现了学习计划类文书,请仔细了解学校和所申请项目的相关情况。

写文书 Please write a short essay describing why you are interested in pursuing your major of choice at Drexel University's Westphal College. What have you done that prepares you to study in your major of choice?

翻译:请写一篇短文描述你为何想在德雷赛尔大学的Westphal学院学习。你为所选的专业做了哪些准备?

解析:AADPS分类I-c

字数限制:专业特定,350-500词

写文书 Please write a personal essay describing in detail what you want to study, what you hope to accomplish during your time in the program, and why your educational goals are best met by a program like this. In writing your essay, think about what problem you might want to solve or issue you want to address, and discuss how your proposed major would help with that. Your personal essay should also include how you expect your proposed major to prepare you for life after Drexel, discussing possible career paths or other pursuits the Custom-Designed Major would help facilitate. Finally, you should also create a proposed plan of courses that would help you realize your vision for a Custom-Designed Major. Think about courses that are exciting and intriguing, and select those courses, specifically, that would help you achieve your academic and professional goals.

翻译:请写一篇个人陈述详细阐述你想学什么,在就读项目过程中你想获得何种成就,以及你的教育目标为什么与此项目最匹配。在写文书的过程中,思考一下你想解决或钻研什么问题,并说明为什么你设计的专业可以帮助你达成这一目的。你的个人陈述中还应当包括你设计的专业会如何帮你预备毕业后的生活,讨论一下自定专业能助上一臂之力的可能职业道路或者其他人生追求。最后,你应该提供一份自定专业的学习计划来帮你实现这些愿景。考虑所有令人兴奋又有趣的课程,再从中具体选出那些能帮助你达成学术和职业目标的课。

解析:AADPS分类I-c

字数限制:专业特定,500-800词

题目归档

2015-2016 [+]

录取问答

问:德雷塞尔的录取条件有哪些?
答:在德雷塞尔大学,我们寻找的是希望在学术上取得成就的学生,但是我们并不在录取上设立SAT、ACT或者GPA的最低标准。关于班级的统计信息,请查看新生档案

问:申请截止日期是多少?
答:大一新生的录取截止日期和重要日期

  • 11月1日:早行动(EA),录取结果会在12月中旬发放
  • 1月15日:常规申请(RD),录取结果会在4月1日发放
  • 5月1日:被录取的学生缴纳学费和住宿费的定金

问:早行动(EA)和常规申请(RD)的区别是什么?
答:如果你选择了EA,这就意味着你要提早申请并且会被提前录取。EA申请者会收到以下三种可能的录取状态中的一种:一封录取通知书,延期到常规申请(你的第一志愿专业),或者没被录取。早行动是不具约束力的,如果确定入学,你需要在5月1日候选人回复日期(National Candidates’ Reply Date)前确认你的入学意向。

如果你选择常规申请,截止日期会晚一些,你将在录取周期结束之后收到录取信。即使你选择常规申请,也要申请的早一些,这是确保你的申请不超过录取截止日期的好方法,也可以在你缺失申请文件时有时间补充。

问:我可以主修两个专业吗?
答:德雷赛尔可以选两个专业,但是你在申请入学时只能选一个专业。一旦你开始了在德雷塞尔的学习,你可以和学业顾问咨询增加第二专业的事宜。

问:我可以选择辅修专业吗?
答:是的,我们提供90个辅修专业,但是这项选择并不在你的申请程序中体现。只有在你开始学习之后,你才能和你的学业顾问一起选择辅修课程。

问:我在高中上了AP或者IB或者大学课程,这些可以转为学分吗?
答:可以。

问:如何修正申请上的错误?
答:请联系学校并指出你想修改的信息。你会收到一封邮件确认信息被修改。

问:我怎样查看申请状态?
答:你可以在德雷赛尔网站查看申请状态。

问:我怎么申请奖学金?
答:在申请过程中所有的学生都会被自动认为是奖学金申请者。额外奖学金信息,请点击

问:我怎样参加大学的体育活动?
答:德雷塞尔大学提供CAA(Colonial Athletic Association)甲级运动项目。请填写表格,更多体育项目的详细信息,请点击

问:什么是co-op?
答:德雷塞尔的合作教育(Cooperative Education,即co-op)能够让本科学生在毕业前,把所学到的理论知识和实际的、亲身实践的经验相结合。通常,学生用六个月的co-op时间和六个月的课堂学习做交换。德雷塞尔大多数专业的学位获得都需要合作教育。详情请点击

问:我听说德雷赛尔的学年按季度划分,不是按学期划分。德雷塞尔的学年系统结构是怎样的?
答:德雷塞尔的学年由四个季度组成,包含了10周的课堂学习和1周的期末考试。学生每年学习几个季度是由co-op的选择决定的。详情请查看

*以上问答内容由AADPS根据第一手资料编译,并不代表AADPS自身观点。

版权申明

本文为AADPS原创,保留著作及出版权利。欢迎非盈利性质的转载,但须保留作者和原始发布地址。本文最新修订于2017年8月16日,发布于http://aadps.net/2014/3681.html